The Structure Of Photovoltaic Solar Cells

  •    PV solar panels or photovoltaic cells convert sunlight directly into DC electricity. The performance of solar panels depends on the cell type and characteristics of the silicon used, with the two main types being monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The bottom of a PV cell is a very thin wafer, typically 0.1mm thick, made of either positive p-type silicon or negative n-type silicon. There are many different cell sizes and configurations available that offer different levels of efficiency and performance, including half-cut or split cells, multi-busbar (MBB) cells, and more recently shingled cells using thin overlapping wafer ribbons. Most residential solar panels contain 60 monocrystalline or polycrystalline cells, connected in series by a busbar, producing 30-40 volts, depending on the type of cells used. In addition to silicon crystals, it has many components, including EVA films, and now there are more types of PVB films.

       EVA stands for "Ethylene Vinyl Acetate" and it is a specially designed highly transparent (plastic) layer of polymer that is used to encapsulate batteries and hold them in place during the manufacturing process. The EVA material must be extremely durable and withstand extreme temperatures and humidity, and it plays an important role in long-term performance by keeping moisture and dirt out.

       The laminates on both sides of the PV cells provide some shock absorption and help protect the cells and interconnects from vibrations and sudden shocks from hail and other objects. A high-quality EVA film with a high degree of "cross-linking" can be the difference between a long life or panel failure due to water ingress. During the manufacturing process, the cells are first encapsulated with EVA and then assembled into the glass and back sheet.

       Glass is integral to protecting photovoltaic cells from weather and hail or air debris. Glass is typically high-strength tempered glass, 3.0 to 4.0mm thick, designed to resist mechanical loads and extreme temperature changes. The IEC minimum standard shock test requires that the solar panel be able to withstand a 1-inch (25 mm) diameter hailstone traveling at 60 mph (27 m/s). Tempered glass is also safer than standard glass in the event of an accident or severe impact because it shatters into tiny shards rather than sharp jagged parts.

       To improve efficiency and performance, most manufacturers use high-transmission glass and dual-mode modules to improve the performance of the panels, this glass has very low iron content and an anti-reflective coating on the back to reduce losses and improve transmission light rate. In addition, there are aluminum frames, connectors, and other components that will not be introduced in detail.

       Jiaxing Fuying Composite Materials Co., Ltd. is a mono solar panels manufacturer and supplier in China. The company owns the mono solar panel factory. It sells  PV solar panelsdouble glass modules and other products, and PVB films all year round.