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Geographical and Varietal Traceability of Chinese Jujubes

    • 2910 posts
    March 25, 2022 9:17 PM EDT

    Chinese jujube fruits are known for their high nutritional and functional values. To protect advantageous regional jujube fruits, it is important to monitor quality indicators and trace the origin and variety. In this study, 31 quality indicators of Chinese jujubes collected from 6 main producing areas were determined. According to different origins and varieties, Chinese jujube fruits were divided into five and six categories, respectively. To simplify the parameters, eight of the main characteristics, namely, soluble sugar content, fresh mass, edible rate, Na, Mg, K, Zn, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), were screened based on multiple comparison, correlation analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA). According to the eight main parameters, it was found that that both the categorical and cross-validated classification accuracy of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were 100%. The discrimination accuracy of the testing set samples based on the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model were 90 and 93% for geographical and varietal classification, respectively. This indicated that the eight main parameters could be used as the characteristic parameters for the origin and variety traceability of Chinese jujubes.To get more news about potato grinding machine, you can visit official website.
    Jujube (Ziziphusjujuba Mill.) has a long history of cultivation, and it is widely distributed across Asian countries, including China, and in southeastern Europe, particularly in Spain, Italy, and Malta [1]. Jujube is famous for its high nutritional and functional value, because it is rich in soluble sugar, trace elements, phenolics, organic acids, triterpene acids, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) [2,3]. Therein, phenolics and triterpene acids have been discovered to have many health benefits including antioxidant activity and anticarcinogenic properties [4]. cAMP is a derivative of nucleotide, which has the function of being a secondary messenger and participates in the regulation of a wide range of physiological and biochemical processes [5].

    Therefore, a number of national, provincial, ministerial and regional level programs applied to jujube fruits [1,6]. China has the highest output of red jujubes in the world—6.873 milliontons [4]. More than 90% of fresh jujubes in China’s total output are dried to prevent microbial reproduction and prolong the storage time [7]. In China, jujube is widely consumed as food and is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has antitumor properties, improves the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, and enhances human immunity and hematopoietic function [8]. The physical and chemical properties of jujubes are affected by their origin, because the edaphoclimatic conditions vary between regions [9].

    In recent years, food quality and security issues, such as the variety of raw materials, batch mixing, and resource transformation, have occurred frequently, which are related to the livelihood of people, social stability, and healthy development of the national economy [10]. To avoid food quality and safety problems, countries all over the world require strict tracing and monitoring of the whole food production process ‘from farm to table’. Because it is cost-effective, time saving and universal, multiple mineral element analysis is one of the techniques mainly applied in traceability and adulteration studies. Gonzalez-Dominguez et al. [11] determined the content of sensory and health characteristics of strawberry, including sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and essential and non-essential mineral elements, and the results showed a good identification result for cultivar and cultivation system differentiation. Zhang et al. [12] analyzed the nutrients and mineral elements of Tibet highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and classified barley sources effectively by linear discriminant analysis. Sun et al. [13] identified the geographical origin of Chinese Angelica based on specific metal element fingerprinting. It demonstrated the feasibility of origin and variety traceability by nutritional characteristics. In order to improve the accuracy of such tracing, several simple physical parametersare combined with nutritional parameters in this study.